Saturday, February 22, 2020
Affirmative Action - Essay Example The phrase Ã¢â¬Å"affirmative actionÃ¢â¬ was introduced by Executive Order 10925. EO 10925 was issued by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1961, which urged employers to actively adopt policies and safeguards against discriminatory practices in their workplace. Four years after, EO 11246 made it mandatory for federal contractors and subcontractors to: (1) identify underutilized minorities, (2) assess availability of minorities, and if available, (3) to set goals and timetables to fill vacancies with minorities with the aim of reducing such underutilization. In 1967, EO 11375 extended the benefits of AA to women. The further expansion of the application of AA was made possible by the U.S. Supreme Court when it promulgated the Bakke decision. In this case the Court was asked to rule whether or not it was unconstitutional for universities to give preference for blacks and minorities in admitting applicants for placement, because it violated the doctrine of Ã¢â¬Å"equal protections of the laws.Ã¢â¬ The Court ruled that Ã¢â¬Å"racial preferences are permissible if their purpose is to improve racial diversity among students, and if they do not stipulate fixed minority quotas but take race into account as one factor among many (Dworkin, 79). Today, AA is more widely observed, but as employment prospects and educational placements become more competitive, more people are raising questions about the propriety and fairness of AA. In defense of affirmative action According to the study by Bowen & Bok (cited by Dworkin, 79), the success of racial integration is attributable to AA in education, because it has enabled a higher rate of graduation among African American students, which led to more African American leaders in industry, professionals, community leaders, and subsequently a more sustained interaction and lasting friendships among the races than would have been otherwise expected. The benefits of AA are not in themselves the moral argument; the argument is th at where for past centuries racial minorities have been constrained to live in conditions of extreme social and economic disadvantage, it is but right that AA provide for them now an advantage over the majority to make up for the adverse conditions they have been subjected to. The implications are more than merely symbolic, and the effects referred to are more than just economic. Present-day descendants of slaves and people of color start life from a position of disadvantage in institutionalized society as a result of the limitations imposed on their ancestors. This is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"stigma theoryÃ¢â¬ (Soni, 581). Parents denied an education because of their race will provide little inspiration for their children to conceive of and aspire for such education. The moral precept that all people are created equal, to be applied with effect, refers to enabling individuals be perceived and regarded the respect of equals. AA not only provides reparation for the past, but more pragm atically speeds up the slow process of transforming social perception. An African American, or woman, or a person with a disability, are persons who, in aspiring for the opportunities provided by the equality clause, struggle under the weight of social perception which, while not discriminatory per se, tends to manifest in subtle ways of stereotyping that renders the Ã¢â¬Å"equalityÃ¢â¬ superficial. In this manner, AA provides an active catalyst to accelerate the social transformation to true equality. Critique of affirmative action Detractors of AA point out that the policy has been implemented by positive and aggressive action Ã¢â¬Å"
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Leadership and battle strategy in the Persian War - Essay Example The thesis statement encompassing this paper is the "leadership and battle strategies in Persian Wars". The Persian wars started with a series of battles within the Greek states, predominantly on the part of Persia against several Greek cities in view of the Persian King's strategy of expanding his kingdom and rule. The Persians waged a war against the Athens and Erectia because of the support these states provided to Ionians and other Greek cities in their fight against Persia. The Persian leader at that time was King Darius I, the Great King of Persia who succeeded in seizing control of almost all the Greek states other than the Athens and Strata (Pomeroy 187-188). The preeminent of all the battles fought in the Persian war was the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC that shaped the destiny of Greek empire. This war not only determined the extent of influence exerted by Persia or Athens politically, but also the prevalence of democracy in Greece. The history of Greece would certainly have been different had the Persians won the battle of Marathon against the Athenians. The Athenians were not as strong as Persians with regard to the infantry, war resources and weapons. The Persians were great in number as compared to the Persians, but were endowed with war discipline and an effective military system along with an efficient leadership. Weir propounds that the strategy Greeks employed in their war with Persians was to evoke insurgency among the people who were inside the Persian Empire so as to subvert their strength. The Athenian commander, Miltiades, had also once remained a Persian commander who betrayed the King of Persia. The Greeks, at that time, also excogitated an effective military system that enabled their soldiers to move about the narrow mountains swiftly. They had also developed in terms of weapons, shields and armors that were used by the fighters in the course of war. The primary weapons that the Greek army mostly carried were spears while short swords were also kept as secondary weapons of war (11). The use of traitors in a battle against the enemy seems to be the most eminent strategy engaged by leaders even in the ancient Greece. Miltiades who once happened to be a tyrant in Greek states and also a commander of Persian army, joined hands with Athenians after his partition with the King of Persia. He proved to be one of the prominent leaders in the series of Persian wars who played an effective role in motivating the Athenians to drive the Persians out of the state. When faced with the dilemma of attacking the powerful Persian army, the Athenian leaders had different opinions as to risk a fight or not. Some leaders were in favor of fighting the Persians in an open attack while others were reluctant of taking the risk. The thing that was at stake was not only the lives of Athenians, but also more importantly, the emerging democracy that had the ability to free the Greek world from the claws of tyranny. Miltiades, who was strongly against the Persians, incited the commanders to attack the Persian infantry so as to defend the democracy of Athens (Weir 10). Miltiades also persuaded the other Athenian leaders to go in the favor of attack in order to save Athens from the tyrannical rule of the King Darius as in Persia. Persians had to confront the two strongest opponents of all the Greek States viz. Athens and Strata as a consequence of attacking Athens. Darius, the Great
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Commentary on Women Beware Women Essay Beware Women is a Jacobean tragedy, which has a complex plot and deals with corrupted characters. This tragedy is about corruption in the court and life in general, love by money and how women can lead other women to destruction. As Tricomi states about the characters, they Ã¢â¬Ëare not wholly the product of their circumstances, but their circumstances condition their choices and propel them toward their destinyÃ¢â¬â¢. Middleton, as other Jacobean playwrights before him, has managed to point out that Ã¢â¬Ëaristocratic life is brutal and corruptÃ¢â¬â¢. 2] The focus of this commentary will be concentrated on marriage and to what can lead one to fall apart. The first scene (Act I), deals with the characters of the playÃ¢â¬â¢s main plot: Leantio, Bianca and the Mother. In this scene, the readers come across with the insulting behaviour towards Bianca, where she is treated as an object. Leantio speaks of his wife with words of business, to him she is Ã¢â¬Å"the most unvaluedÃ¢â¬â¢st purchaseÃ¢â¬ .He describes her as if she was a dangerous object that must stay hidden and safe, away from the sight of men. When he talks about her, it is obvious that Bianca is for him a treasure and he is the thief that now has to hide his Ã¢â¬Å"best piece of theftÃ¢â¬ (I. ii) in a safe place so no one will steal it from him. Such words describing a human being are rather cruel, especially when Leantio is talking about a person for whom he is supposed to have true and pure feelings of love. Leantio is aware that BiancaÃ¢â¬â¢s family is rich, but he also knows that by marrying Bianca in secrecy and taking her away from them, Bianca will lose all of the property and money that belongs to her. He has also written over to her his house and put his mother in jeopardy. Although his act seems a romantic one and, even though he speaks of that relationship and feelings as being pure, his love is not mature; rather, it is one filled with jealousy. In the beginning of the play Bianca could be characterised as the victim because she has a mother-in-law who is not fond of her and does not approve their marriage and she is now imprisoned in poverty and in home. However, Bianca is Ã¢â¬Ëas much a victim as perpetrator, and she is to be judged as a tragic protagonist with a vexing mix of virtues and flawsÃ¢â¬â¢.  As seen in the plot, the Mother aids and abets in BiancaÃ¢â¬â¢s meeting with the Duke. The Mother and Livia hatched up a plan for BiancaÃ¢â¬â¢s rape and she falls into the trap, as Isabella did, but the rape was almost enticed on her part. Ã¢â¬ËThe attitude towards Bianca is one of dehumanizing possession and manipulationÃ¢â¬â¢.  But Bianca, after that, changes drastically and soon enough she becomes one of the most corrupted characters, who along with others, brings about the downfall and the final bloodshed in the play. Bianca chose money over her marriage, although, she blames the other women for her disaster. Ã¢â¬ËTreachery and betrayal [ ] are BiancaÃ¢â¬â¢s terms of explanation for her downfallÃ¢â¬â¢.  Bianca is seen by her mother-in-law as an added burden to her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s finances. The MotherÃ¢â¬â¢s interest is focused only on money. For the Mother, Bianca as a wife has nothing to offer, she will only demand and receive. The Mother is sizing up the economics of their situation now that there are three members in the family. Leantio can barely support himself, and up until now he had to support his mother as well. The Mother doubts that her son is able to support a family of three. She claims that nothing can save him from this financial dead end by saying Ã¢â¬Å"My life can give you But little helps, and my death lesser hopesÃ¢â¬ (I. i). The Mother thinks of Bianca, as for every other wife, that she will require from Leantio Ã¢â¬Å"maintenanceÃ¢â¬ (I. ii) fitting to her Ã¢â¬Å"birth and virtuesÃ¢â¬ (I. ii), but also gratification of her desire for Ã¢â¬Å"affections, wills, and humoursÃ¢â¬ (I. ii).  Leantio then expresses his intentions towards Bianca, by replying to his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s words, pleading with her not to Ã¢â¬Å"teach her to rebelÃ¢â¬ (I. ii) now that Ã¢â¬Å"sheÃ¢â¬â¢s in a good way to obedienceÃ¢â¬ (I. ii). LeantioÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"assuranceÃ¢â¬ (I. ii), of keeping his Ã¢â¬Å"jewelÃ¢â¬ (I. ii) locked away Ã¢â¬Å"from all menÃ¢â¬â¢s eyesÃ¢â¬ (I. ii), is his mother. She is the one who holds the Ã¢â¬Å"keyÃ¢â¬ (I. i) to his Ã¢â¬Å"treasureÃ¢â¬ (I. ii), and Ã¢â¬Å"old mothersÃ¢â¬ (I. ii) are Ã¢â¬Å"good to look to keysÃ¢â¬ (I. ii) when Ã¢â¬Å"sons lock chestsÃ¢â¬ (I. ii). However, the irony here is that later on, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the Mother herself who pushes Bianca towards rape with the Duke, first to get rid of her, but then to accrue some of the benefits from the court life for herself and her son. Bianca is to Leantio nothing but an object of Ã¢â¬Å"great valueÃ¢â¬ (I. ii), a Ã¢â¬Å"matchless jewelÃ¢â¬ (I. ii) that he has stolen. Because Ã¢â¬Å"temptation is a devil will not stick to fasten upon a saintÃ¢â¬ (I. ii), LeantioÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"gemÃ¢â¬ (I. ii) must stay hidden and locked. This is the Ã¢â¬Å"great policyÃ¢â¬ (I. i) for Leantio in order to never lose a treasure; never Ã¢â¬Å"show thieves our wealthÃ¢â¬ (I. ii). Bianca is the Ã¢â¬Å"treasureÃ¢â¬ (I. ii), Leantio is the Ã¢â¬Å"thiefÃ¢â¬ (I. ii), and the Ã¢â¬Å"keyÃ¢â¬ (I. ii) to his happiness holds his mother, thus, it could be said that the chest with the key is symbolic of Leantio and BiancaÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship. To conclude, this tragedy proves that women should beware women. Women lead other women to destruction, and are even responsible for another womanÃ¢â¬â¢s rape. Corruption and enemies are present everywhere but, as Bianca says in her dying breath, Ã¢â¬Å"Like our own sex, we have no enemyÃ¢â¬ .
Monday, January 20, 2020
Franz Kafka's Life Reflected in his Work, The Metamorphosis The Metamorphosis written by Franz Kafka is considered one of the few great, poetic works of the twentieth century. Addressing The Metamorphosis, Elias Canetti, a Nobel Prize-winning author, has commented, "In The Metamorphosis Kafka has reached the height of his mastery: he has written something which he could never surpass, because there is nothing which The Metamorphosis could be surpassed by - one of the few great, perfect poetic works of this century" (http://www.mala.bc.ca/~mcneil/m4lec5a.htm). There are many symbolisms and parallelisms used in the story. "[Kafka's] disturbing, symbolic fiction, especially The Metamorphosis, written in German, [not] only prefigures the oppression and despair of the late 20th century" but also is an account of the dramatic transformations that had occurred during his own life ("Kafka Franz", Funk?, 2000). This beautifully written masterpiece of Kafka's is clearly symbolic of his own life and nightmare-like life experiences he had with his father . "Suppose all that you have always valued in your life was shown to be an illusion. What if your precious beliefs, maxims, platitudes, and traditions were inverted and distorted beyond recognition? You suddenly realize that what is good is bad; what is beauty is foul; what is virtue, vice. What if all your points of reference were to shift: North becomes South; black becomes white; deviant becomes saint; saint becomes deviant. Suppose that this transformation - a metamorphosis of perception - were to come to you and you alone. Suddenly you awake, and in utter solitude you discover that your values have reversed along with you: you are a roach!" (http://www.vr.net/~herzogbr/kafka/). Yo... ...s. and Ed. Corngold, Stanley. New York: Norton, 1996. 61-74. Corngold, Stanley. "Preface." The Metamorphosis. Trans. and Ed. Corngold, Stanley. Sydney: Bantan, 1972. xi Kafka, Franz. "Explanatory Notes To The Text." The Metamorphosis. Trans. and Ed. Corngold, Stanley. Sydney: Bantan, 1972. 77. Kafka, Franz. "Documents." The Metamorphosis. Trans. and Ed. Corngold, Stanley. Sydney: Bantan, 1972. 103-112. Madden, William A. "A Myth of Mediation: Kafka's 'Metamorphosis'." THOUGHT XXVI.101 (Summer 1951): 246-66. Rpt. in "Kafka, Franz." Short Story Criticism. Ed. Thomas Votteler. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 1996. 210-213. "Franz Kafka." Encyclopedia Of World Biogarphy. 2nd ed. 1998. "KAFKA, Franz." Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. CD-ROM . World Almanac Education Group. 2000. "Metamorphosis by Kafka." http://www.vr.net/~herzogbr/kafka/meta09.html Franz Kafka's Life Reflected in his Work, The Metamorphosis Essay Franz Kafka's Life Reflected in his Work, The Metamorphosis The Metamorphosis written by Franz Kafka is considered one of the few great, poetic works of the twentieth century. Addressing The Metamorphosis, Elias Canetti, a Nobel Prize-winning author, has commented, "In The Metamorphosis Kafka has reached the height of his mastery: he has written something which he could never surpass, because there is nothing which The Metamorphosis could be surpassed by - one of the few great, perfect poetic works of this century" (http://www.mala.bc.ca/~mcneil/m4lec5a.htm). There are many symbolisms and parallelisms used in the story. "[Kafka's] disturbing, symbolic fiction, especially The Metamorphosis, written in German, [not] only prefigures the oppression and despair of the late 20th century" but also is an account of the dramatic transformations that had occurred during his own life ("Kafka Franz", Funk?, 2000). This beautifully written masterpiece of Kafka's is clearly symbolic of his own life and nightmare-like life experiences he had with his father . "Suppose all that you have always valued in your life was shown to be an illusion. What if your precious beliefs, maxims, platitudes, and traditions were inverted and distorted beyond recognition? You suddenly realize that what is good is bad; what is beauty is foul; what is virtue, vice. What if all your points of reference were to shift: North becomes South; black becomes white; deviant becomes saint; saint becomes deviant. Suppose that this transformation - a metamorphosis of perception - were to come to you and you alone. Suddenly you awake, and in utter solitude you discover that your values have reversed along with you: you are a roach!" (http://www.vr.net/~herzogbr/kafka/). Yo... ...s. and Ed. Corngold, Stanley. New York: Norton, 1996. 61-74. Corngold, Stanley. "Preface." The Metamorphosis. Trans. and Ed. Corngold, Stanley. Sydney: Bantan, 1972. xi Kafka, Franz. "Explanatory Notes To The Text." The Metamorphosis. Trans. and Ed. Corngold, Stanley. Sydney: Bantan, 1972. 77. Kafka, Franz. "Documents." The Metamorphosis. Trans. and Ed. Corngold, Stanley. Sydney: Bantan, 1972. 103-112. Madden, William A. "A Myth of Mediation: Kafka's 'Metamorphosis'." THOUGHT XXVI.101 (Summer 1951): 246-66. Rpt. in "Kafka, Franz." Short Story Criticism. Ed. Thomas Votteler. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 1996. 210-213. "Franz Kafka." Encyclopedia Of World Biogarphy. 2nd ed. 1998. "KAFKA, Franz." Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. CD-ROM . World Almanac Education Group. 2000. "Metamorphosis by Kafka." http://www.vr.net/~herzogbr/kafka/meta09.html
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The Italo-Turkish war, which lasted from 1911-12 and was predominantly fought in Libya, was the first recorded event of a bomb dropped from an aeroplane onto the enemy. The 1912-13 Balkans also witnessed elementary aerial bombing executed against the opponent from aeroplanes and airships. However, World War One was the first major conflict to implement forces on a large scale that would literally elevate the battlefield. The aeroplanes and zeppelins of the Great War opened the door to an entirely new way to wage battle, which has unquestionably altered the nature of war forever. Nevertheless, despite being the war that ornamented the importance of military aviation, it is unclear whether or not this monumental achievement in military technology actually affected the course of WWI. Did the vividly coloured bi-planes and cumbersome airships flying over the muddy, blood-soaked trenches actually alter the course of the war, or were they just prototypes seen to have a great deal of potential? The key objective of this essay is to examine the impact that aerial forces had on the war; to determine if and how they shaped the outcome. Therefore, it is not the purpose of this essay to prove the monumental significance of military aviation in the First World War, but rather to investigate the importance of the role that it played. For the purposes of precision and brevity, we will focus mainly on the British Ã¢â¬âand to an extent, German- involvement in aviation during the First World War. Although other nations that were involved, such as France, USA and Austria-Hungary, contributed significant achievements to the field of military aviation in WWI, analyzing the impacts made by the air forces of these countries would make an essay Ã¢â¬âmeant to be concise- far too complex. However, it is difficult to understand the impact of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) on the war without comparing them to the opponent. Therefore, we will also occasionally examine the Imperial German Army Air Service (Luftstreitkrafte) and its role in the skies above Europe during the Great War. We will first ascertain an understanding of the magnitude of aerial contributions to the war by comparing the number of those enlisted in the aerial services to those enlisted in the other military branches. We will then examine the various duties of the air services in the war and analyze the impact that these roles had on the war. Finally, we will discuss the psychological attitudes held towards the aircraft and pilots during the war, and whether or not these shaped the course of WWI in any way. By looking at these various components of military aviation during this period, we will be able to determine the impact it made on its debut large-scale conflict. For the purpose of clarity, it is important to define a few terms that will be used frequently throughout the course of this essay. For example, when attempting to determine the impact that military aviation made on WWI, we are trying to determine how large a role it played throughout the war and whether or not the war was drastically altered due to the inclusion of air services on a large scale. Moreover, an obvious Ã¢â¬âbut also crucial- clarification to make is that aircraft and aviation are not terms strictly limited to areoplanes, but to all vessels capable of flight. Consequently, zeppelins and balloons are also encapsulated by the term aircraft in this essay. Keeping in mind these clarities will certainly enhance the focus when reading this report. Throughout the course of the war, British planes were operated either by the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) or the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). In 1918, the two services amalgamated to form the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the war-time statistics of both services were also conjoined. Throughout the course of the war, roughly 30,000 officers and 300,000 enlisted men served in either the RFC or RNAS. This figure of men who served in the aerial branches of the British military made up only 6% of the 5,397,000 British soldiers mobilized in the Great War. Of the men who served in the RFC and RNAS, 6,166 were killed; 7,245 were wounded; 3,128 became missing or POWs; and 84 were interned. Therefore, the total number of casualties sustained by the RFC and RNAS was 16,623, which was only 5% of the total number who served in air services. Of the 2,367,000 British military casualties in the war, less than 1% of that figure was comprised of RFC or RNAS casualties. Similarly, of the 5,952,000 German war casualties, only 16,000 of those were members of the Luftstreitkrafte. We can gather from this statistical analysis that the British and German (similar trends for the air forces of other nations) air forces did not have a great quantitative presence in the war in comparison to the other military branches of WWI. Furthermore, because WWI was a war in which success and victory relied heavily upon the number of troops deployed, the combat contributions made by aerial forces cannot measure up to the combat contributions made by the armies and navies of WWI. Military aviation was still in its prototypical stage, which prevented it from making a serious impact on the actual fighting of the war. However, as we will discuss later on, aviation played a crucial role in observation and reconnaissance, which was a hugely significant strategic impact. The impact that aviation had on the bombing campaigns of the Great War was rather miniscule. For example, C. G. Grey, an aviation historian, wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"During 1914-18 the damage done in England by [aerial] bombing was practically negligible. A few houses were damaged in a few English towns. About 1,500 people altogether were killed. No armament factory of any importance was destroyed. Ã¢â¬ Germany Ã¢â¬âconsidering her geographic location was closer to the war epicenter- was slightly more prone to bombings than Great Britain was but it was still a minute threat when factored into the whole grand scheme of war-induced devastation. Nevertheless, aerial forces did play an ample role as support units during land and sea battles. For example, during the Battle of the Somme in 1916, the RFC played a substantial part in providing support for the British and French troops on the ground. The Luftstreitkrafte was also present at the battle, but the British, with the assistance of the French Armee de l'Air (Army of the air), had the strength in numbers. Tactics would comprise of bombing and gunning the enemy trenches as a means of cover for advancing infantry and patrolling the skies for enemy aircraft. However, reconnaissance and observation was undoubtedly the most useful role conducted by the aerial forces of WWI and probably the way in which it made the greatest strategic impact. Artillery was arguably the deadliest risk to the soldiers on the battlefield, as one shell explosion could jeopardize a multiplicity of soldiers. Airships, balloons and aeroplanes all assumed the task of scouting out artillery positions and relaying the information to the ground forces. Moreover, aerial photography was becoming more popular with the military, which allowed suspected locations of enemy activity to be confirmed with photographic evidence. In this sense, aviation affected the Great War to a considerable extent, as it allowed both sides to see the enemy prior to combat engagement. Furthermore, at the battle of Jutland in 1916, the largest naval battle of the war, aeroplanes were used by the British to observe the activities of the German fleet. The HMS Engadine was able hold up to four seaplanes -in a hanger on her deck- that could be lowered into the water to take off. Short Type 184 seaplanes took off from beside the Engadine in the first recorded instance of aerial reconnaissance of an active enemy fleet. Although these Short Type 184s were capable of carrying torpedoes and bombs, they were only used for reconnaissance during the battle of Jutland. The HMS Engadine and other ships of her class were the initial models for the modern day aircraft carriers, the flag ships of contemporary navies for their ability to dispatch aerial units. Although the HMS Engadine and her four Short Type 184 seaplanes did not seriously affect the course of the battle (Britain maintained naval supremacy in the North Sea but suffered greater losses than Germany), it did demonstrate the potential of naval aviation to determine the movements and position of an enemy fleet before it comes into contact with the home fleet. Two years before Jutland, Winston Churchill, when he was Lord of the Admiralty, described the importance of using seaplanes in the military: Ã¢â¬Å"Seaplanes, which when they carry torpedoes, may prove capable of playing a decisive part in operations against capital ships. The facilities of reconnaissance at sea, where hostile vessels can be sighted at enormous distances while the seaplane remains out of possible range, offer a far wider prospect even in the domain of information to seaplanes than to land aeroplanes, which would be continually brought under rifle and artillery fire from concealed positions on the ground, among trees, behind hedges, etc. This clearly shows the potential that seaplanes were believed to posses, and despite the rather limited role they played in fighting the war, they certainly captured the attention of some notable figures in the hierarchy of the British military, like Churchill. We can conclude that the strategic value of aviation in the First World War was not as precious as the other components of the military (infantry, artillery, navy, etc), simply because aviation was still in its elementary phases and was not yet implemented on as large a scale as the other components. However, the psychological impact aviation had on the war was undoubtedly staggering. The idea of man flying through the air in a winged contraption was essentially unimaginable twenty years prior to the war, but the aeroplane, which only took off for the first time in 1903, was now being implemented against the enemy in armed conflict. The pilots who flew these aeroplanes were encapsulated by the imagery of pioneers exploring the vast unknown, and those who excelled in the cock pit, the flying Ã¢â¬Å"acesÃ¢â¬ , became national heroes. For example, Manfred von Richtofen, popularly known as Ã¢â¬ËThe Red BaronÃ¢â¬â¢, became such an icon for the German people in WWI for his number of Ã¢â¬Å"killsÃ¢â¬ (Richtofen shot down 80 enemy planes) that the Luftstreitkrafte was hesitant to continue sending him on missions. This was because it was feared his death would affect the morale of the entire nation, which could potentially alter the course of the war. This fear was partially due to the fact that the German government propagandized the image of Richtofen to build up morale in the first place. It seemed obvious to choose a man who excelled in flying, the exciting new novelty, to be a national hero. His face could be seen on postcards throughout Germany and his tales of impressive bravery were embellished by the government to create a hero that the German people could love and support throughout the war. In Britain, the government took precaution to avoid the risk of losing national morale, which meant the government would not publish the names of the Ã¢â¬ËAcesÃ¢â¬â¢ until they either died or exited the service (the government did, however, embellish stories of the British Ã¢â¬ËAcesÃ¢â¬â¢ a few years after the war to create a sense of national pride). The aviation historian J. M. Spaight wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"Her pilots were magnificent, though it was not the practice in the British service, as it was in all other services, to publish regularly the names of the Ã¢â¬ËAces,Ã¢â¬â¢ i. . of those pilots who had brought down five enemy machines or more. Ã¢â¬ Britain (including the Commonwealth countries) was the country with the most Ã¢â¬ËAcesÃ¢â¬â¢, although only a few had their identities published during the war, because it was a concern that these pilots would become idealized as national war heroes, lifting morale with every enemy kill and diminishing it their own fatalitie s. This precaution certainly makes clear the impact that aviation had on the wartime morale. A brave pilot who would shoot down the opponent in a thrilling dogfight in the clouds certainly caught the attention of the masses, and because of this, it shaped a significant mentality of WWI. The zeppelins of WWI also contributed to the psychological impact. Even though the balloon had been used since the days of the Franco-Prussian War, WWI was the first war that witnessed the military zeppelins capable of traveling long distances (German zeppelins were able to travel impressive distances across the English Channel to conduct bombing raids on Britain) to inflict damage on the enemy. The zeppelins, which were predominantly used by the Luftstreitkrafte, also conducted important observation and decoy missions. The way the zeppelins created a psychological impact, however, had to do with their bombing abilities, as they were able to transcend the battlefield and bomb areas not directly affected by combat. Even though the damage caused by zeppelin raids in Britain was minimal, as we discussed earlier, it did eliminate the feelings of safety and isolation that were once a great reassurance to the British population when their country was at war. C. G. Grey wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"The psychological moment of the populace of any country is likely to be much more affected by air [zeppelin] bombing than by any artillery bombardment. Ã¢â¬ The British government capitalized upon this by publishing posters saying: Ã¢â¬Å"It is far better to face the bullets than to be killed at home by a bomb: join the army at once and help to stop and air raid. Ã¢â¬ The fact that the British government was able to capitalize on the fear of aerial raids certainly suggests a deep impact caused by the potential of these zeppelins. Therefore, it would be acting outside the realms of validity to say that the zeppelins in WWI delivered no impact. However, Winston Churchill believed the zeppelins to be a minimal threat once the aeroplane started to achieve greater potential: Ã¢â¬Å"I believed that this enormous blabber of combustible and explosive gas would prove to be easily destructible. I was sure the fighting aeroplane, rising lightly laden from its own base, armed with incendiary bullets, would harry, rout and burn these gaseous monsters. This theory Ã¢â¬â the aeroplane being able to easily destroy the zeppelin- which Churchill called the Ã¢â¬ËHornet TheoryÃ¢â¬â¢, proved to be true throughout the war. Therefore, even though the zeppelins did impact the psychological moment of the British populace to an extent through the use of bombing campaigns, aeroplanes were the predominant victors in the skies over WWI. It goes without saying that there was not one universal opinion on military aviation within the highest ranks of the British military and government. It is important to consider the attitudes of powerful figures in the government and military, as they wer e the ones who could control the degree of impact aviation had on the war. There were some stout advocates who stressed the importance of deploying aircraft into military affairs, like Winston Churchill, who was mentioned earlier, and Hugh Trenchard, the Ã¢â¬Å"fatherÃ¢â¬ of the RAF. Churchill considered aviation (aeroplanes and airships) to be the most efficient approach in conducting reconnaissance missions. However, there were feelings of the contrary held by Field Marshall Sir Douglas Haig, who a starch opponent of the implementation of areoplanes into the army for reconnaissance purposes (arguably the most important function of the aeroplane at that time) and was caught saying in 1914: Ã¢â¬Å"I hope none of you gentlemen is so foolish as to think that aeroplanes will be able to be usefully employed for reconnaissance purposes in war. There is only one way for a commander to get information by reconnaissance, and that is by the use of cavalry. Haig commanded the British Expeditionary Force from 1915 until the end of the war, leading the British armies in some of the greatest battles of the war. It is a valid conclusion to say that British military aviation would have taken off to a greater extent had the commander of British forces in Europe been a greater advocate for flight. However, despite being an old-fashioned soldier who preferred the use of infantry and mobilized ground units, Haig saw that the nature of war was changing. It was no longer practical to send cavalry units across the field charging the enemy now that artillery and rifles were more advanced and powerful. Furthermore, Haig knew that a hussar could not stand up to the newly implemented battle tanks rolling across the fields. Therefore, the use of aviation may not have been preferable to HaigÃ¢â¬â¢s military taste, but it was not dismissed by him, as the changing nature of war meant it had to be recognized. Hugh Trenchard, who would become the first Marshall of the RAF in 1918, said to the Haig in 1916: Ã¢â¬Å"As far as at present can be foreseen, there is absolutely no limit to the scale of its future independent war use. And the day may not be far off when aerial operations with their devastation of enemy lands and destruction of industrial and populous centres on a vast scale may become the principal operations of war, to which the older forms of military and naval operations may be secondary and subordinate. Ã¢â¬ Trenchard, among other politicians and high-ranking officials in the RFC and RNAS (Frederick Sykes being another igure who emphasized the importance of military aviation) , may have convinced Haig that aviation was a serious thing, but there is no record of Haig ever embracing military aviation as a monumental achievement in military technology. To specify, it is not being stated that Haig was not in awe of the technical capabilities of aviation, but he did not consider it the most valuable tool on the battlefield. By analyzing the various components of WWI aviation, we can agree that our findings were rather varied. For example, by comparing the quantitative presence Ã¢â¬âas well as casualty figures- of air force servicemen to the enlisted men of the other branches of the military, we reached the conclusion that there were far less men and resources invested into the aerial theatre of the war than the amount invested in the other theatres of the war. Furthermore, we examined the extent of damage caused by aerial bombing raids during the First World War, and concluded that the impact was not nearly as intense as the other factors of war-induced devastation. However, we did explore the ways in which aviation benefitted the process of observation and reconnaissance. In this sense, aviation in WWI displayed a hugely significant strategic value that undoubtedly helped save the lives of soldiers on the ground. Moreover, the aeroplanes used in the naval campaigns of the war demonstrated the potential value of observing an enemy fleet before an actual engagement. Therefore, the strategic impact aviation made on the war was mainly due to reconnaissance. Although the bombing and support roles of aircraft did make a humble impact on the war, getting Ã¢â¬Ëa birdÃ¢â¬â¢s eye viewÃ¢â¬â¢ of enemy activities proved more valuable than imprecisely dropping a bomb on an enemy target. However, the realization of its potential and the psychological attitudes associated with it are arguably the greatest impacts that military aviation had on WWI. The pilot Ã¢â¬ËAcesÃ¢â¬â¢ became national heroes that their countries could idolize as symbols for great military achievement in the war. With their successes came high morale, and with their deaths came iconic losses. Moreover, aviation introduced the idea of the battle transcending the battlefield to the factories and farms at home that aided the war effort. Consequently, psychological attitudes of those on the home front were seriously affected. When we determine the impact that aviation had on the First World War we must ask one question: would the war have had a different outcome had aerial forces been exempt from the equation? The answer is probably not. Nevertheless, it did open the doors to an entirely new way to conduct warfare, which has changed the nature of war forever.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Introduction Child poverty has become one of the most significant ongoing issues in New Zealand. According to the Child Poverty Monitor Technical Report in 2013, one out of four New Zealand children are growing up in poverty and one out of six are growing up without meeting the basic needs such as adequate and nutritious food, health care, adequate clothing and housing. Ten percent of the New Zealand children are at the hardest end of poverty and sixty percent of children living in poverty will likely live this way for most of their childhood (Craig, Reddington, Wicken, Oben, Simpson, 2013). The child poverty rate in recent years has almost doubled compared to the 1980s, which was about 13% (Boston, 2013). This is not only surprising but also concerning. The costs of child poverty affects children in the form of ill health and high mortality, lowered educational and employment opportunities, increased criminal and violence behaviours and much more. Child poverty not only harms the individual child, but also afflicted the society as a whole with both social and economic costs (Craig, 2013). Boston (2013) also suggested that a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s prosperity is reduced with substantial rates of child poverty based on empirical evidence. Children are the future of New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s society, and they need to be well nourished, housed and educated to contribute to a functioning and thriving society. As future nurses working in this environment, itÃ¢â¬â¢s very important to recognise child poverty asShow MoreRelatedChild Poverty And Its Effects On Children1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChild Poverty in Canada Grace Abbott once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Child labor and poverty are inevitably bound together and if you continue to use the labor of children as the treatment for the social disease of poverty, you will have both poverty and child labor to the end of time.Ã¢â¬ Child poverty is one of the biggest issues facing Canadian children today. Child poverty can significantly shorten a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. One of the major reasons child poverty in Canada is so high is because of low wages. These children haveRead MoreChild Poverty And Its Effects On Children s Adjustment1473 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChild poverty is a major issue in the United States. Poverty can be associated with violence, abuse, malnutrition, problems with learning ability and school achievement and inadequate healthcare, which can negatively affect the developmental process of a child. Poverty indirectly impacts childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s adjustment and the ability to successfully adapt in the environment. This can affect the health of chil dren and lead to psychological disorders. While it seems impossible to completely eliminate childhoodRead MoreEffects Of Poverty On Children1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHow Poverty Effects Children Makayla Ray University of Alabama in Birmingham Abstract This literature review of twelve previously published research articles has focused on summarizing some of the effects of poverty on children. The selected articles all focused on the major effect of poverty on children, and were sorted into four sub-categories or themes based upon a specific focus areas of this complex and not yet fully understood issue. These themes included developmental, educationalRead MoreEffects of Poverty on Children: Literature Review Essay1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesresearch articles has focused on summarizing some of the effects of poverty on children. The selected articles all focused on the major effect of poverty on children, and were sorted into four sub-categories or themes based upon a specific focus areas of this complex and not yet fully understood issue. These themes included developmental, educational outcomes, health, and parenting effects, and how they were impacted by children living in poverty. Impact on Development The developmental theme includedRead MoreThe Effect of Poverty on Childrens Lives1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬ËPoverty is not just a disadvantaged and insecure economic condition, it is also understood in terms of how people in poverty interact with the wider societyÃ¢â¬â¢. (Combat Poverty Agency, 2008, p3). Lack of money results in people not being able to adapt to the norm and socialise with others which has a huge effect how people are treated in their everyday life. This leads to isolation, shame and unacceptable living conditions which has a huge impact on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. (Combat Poverty Agency, 2008)Read MoreState of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Children: Child Poverty Essay1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ State of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Children: Child Poverty Argosy University Online November 20, 2013 Abstract America is one of the riches countries in the world it is home to approximately 406 billionaires and many millionaires, babies are being born into poverty about every 32 seconds everyday (ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Defense Fund, 2010). The ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Defense Fund (CDF) reports one is every five children are born in to poverty and children constitute for the poorest age group in America (ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreEffects Of Poverty On Children1554 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEffects of Poverty on Children Makayla Ray University of Alabama in Birmingham Abstract This literature review of twelve previously published research articles has focused on summarizing some of the effects of poverty on children. The selected articles all focused on the major effect of poverty on children, and were sorted into four sub-categories or themes based upon a specific focus areas of this complex and not yet fully understood issue. These themes included developmental, educationalRead Morechild poverty999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Child poverty in the U.K Introduction Child poverty is becoming more of a big issue now more than ever in the U.K, with so many people unemployed and living on benefits. Children across the country are being deprived of basic living standards. The price of living is going up and itÃ¢â¬â¢s no wonder people are struggling to make ends meet. In my essay, I will talk about all aspects of how child poverty impacts greatly on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. I will talk about the effects poverty has on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s healthRead MoreThe Effects of Child Poverty on Their Cognitive and Social Development1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Effects of Poverty on ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Cognitive and Social Development PSYC318 Sheehan Gilbert-Burne 6136739 Word Count: 1650 Question 2: Discuss the effects of poverty on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive and social development and the extent to which effects might extend into adulthood Poverty is a global issue that has been at the forefront of economic debate for over a century. Left wing politicians and anti-poverty organisations around the world still adamantly fight for aRead MoreChild Labour And Child Labor1600 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesChild Labor Issues There are children that suffer through child labor daily. Child labor is the use of children in a business or industry, usually illegal. Ã¢â¬Å"3 billion people around the world survive on $2.50 a day or less. And 2 billion people do not hold a bank account or have access to essential financial servicesÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Living in PovertyÃ¢â¬ 1). Children that are normally in labor come from a poor family thatÃ¢â¬â¢s in need of money so badly that it comes down to selling their own children or putting
Friday, December 27, 2019
In the last century, environmentalism has become an important and highly polarizing topic of social discourse as the rise of industrialization as spread across the world. More and more human beings have become aware of their impact on the environment, yet even this seems to be up for debate. However, those who are concerned with environmental issues like global warming, the depletion of natural resources, and pollution have gained a more clear and organized voice to not only raise awareness, but enact both higher and lower level change. Within these movements, different religious institutions (churches, denominations, temples) have used drawn on their religious narratives to understand what Ã¢â¬Å"creation careÃ¢â¬ and stewardship truly mean. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To begin to understand the interaction between Judaism and environmentalism, formative narratives from the Torah must be investigated. However, this investigation need not journey passed the first narrative o f the creation story to understand the significant between humanity, creation, and the divine. Genesis 1 describes how God created the heavens and the earth, man and beast and then mandates man to rule over beast and creation (Genesis 1:28). Therefore, from the beginning there seems to be an established hierarchy of man over nature. In a seminal article discussing the connection between ecology and religion, Lynn White (1967) heavily critiqued the traditional interpretation of this mandate of manÃ¢â¬â¢s domination over the environment. White saw the connection between religion and the growing ecological as he stated: Ã¢â¬Å"What people do about their ecology depends on what they thing about themselves in relation to things around them. Human ecology is deeply conditioned by beliefs about our nature and destiny-that is, by religionÃ¢â¬ ¦Since the roots of our trouble are so largely religious, the remedy must also be essentially religiousÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (as cited in Benstein, 2006, p. 14). Religion, then, is a large part of the problem and historical has not been part of the solution. Although a Christian writer, White states that the